benzodiazepinesassay

What is benzodiazepines assay?


Benzodiazepines are a type of medication known as tranquilizers. Familiar names include Valium and Xanax. They are some of the most commonly prescribed medications in the United States. When people without prescriptions take these drugs for their sedating effects, then use turns into abuse. Doctors may prescribe a benzodiazepine for the following legitimate medical conditions: Anxiety Insomnia Alcohol withdrawal Seizure control Muscle relaxation Inducing amnesia for uncomfortable procedures Given before an anesthetic (such as before surgery) Benzodiazepines act on the central nervous system, produce sedation and muscle relaxation, and lower anxiety levels. Although more than 2000 different benzodiazepines have been produced, only about 15 are currently FDA-approved in the United States. They are usually classified by how long their effects last. Ultra-short acting - Midazolam (Versed), triazolam (Halcion) Short-acting - Alprazolam (Xanax), lorazepam (Ativan) Long-acting - Chlordiazepoxide (Librium), diazepam (Valium Benzodiazepines are commonly abused. This abuse is partially related to the toxic effects that they produce and also to their widespread availability. They can be chronically abused or, as seen more commonly in hospital emergency departments, intentionally or accidentally taken in overdose. Death and serious illness rarely result from benzodiazepine abuse alone, however, they are frequently taken with either alcohol or other medications. The combination of benzodiazepines and alcohol can be dangerous. Benzodiazepines have also been used as a "date rape" drug because they can markedly impair and even abolish functions that normally allow a person to resist or even want to resist sexual aggression or assault. In recent years, the detection and conviction of people involved in this has increased dramatically. The drug is usually added to alcohol-containing drinks or even soft drinks in powder or liquid forms and can be hard to taste.

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Romazicon

ROMAZICON (flumazenil) is a benzodiazepine receptor antagonist. Chemically, flumazenil is ethyl 8-fluoro-5,6-dihydro-5-methyl-6-oxo-4H-imidazo[1,5-a](1,4) benzodiazepine-3-carboxylate. Flumazenil has an imidazobenzodiazepine structure, a calculated molecular weight of 303.3, and the following structural formula:Flumazenil is a white to off-white crystalline compound with an octanol:buffer partition coefficient of 14 to 1 at pH 7.4. It is insoluble in water but slightly soluble in acidic aqueous solutions. ROMAZICON is available as a sterile parenteral dosage form for intravenous administration. Each mL contains 0.1 mg of flumazenil compounded with 1.8 mg of methylparaben, 0.2 mg of propylparaben, 0.9% sodium chloride, 0.01% edetate disodium, and 0.01% acetic acid, the pH is adjusted to approximately 4 with hydrochloric acid and/or, if necessary, sodium hydroxide. Adult Patients ROMAZICON is indicated for the complete or partial reversal of the sedative effects of benzodiazepines in cases where general anesthesia has been induced and/or maintained with benzodiazepines, where sedation has been produced with benzodiazepines for diagnostic and therapeutic procedures, and for the management of benzodiazepine overdose.

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Modification of the EMIT tox benzodiazepine assay for screening of ...

by AD Fraser - Cited by 4 - Related articles

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xsystems dilution buffer, list number 9519-02; for - Medical ...

Sep 18, 2004 ... The letter gave examples of the effects observed in the benzodiazepines assay performance, and listed the following actions to be taken ...

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Aging changes in sleep

Sleep occurs in multiple stages. The sleep cycle includes dreamless periods of light and deep sleep, with occasional periods of active dreaming (REM sleep). The sleep cycle is repeated several times during the night. AGING CHANGES With aging, sleep patterns tend to change. Most people find that aging causes them to have a harder time falling asleep, and that they awaken more often. Total sleep time remains the same or is slightly decreased (6.5 to 7 hours per night). It may be harder to fall asleep. The transition between being asleep and awake is often abrupt, giving older people the feeling of being more of a "light sleeper" than when they were younger. Less time is spent in deep, dreamless sleep. Older people average three or four awakenings each night, with increased recall of being awake. Awakenings are related to less time spent in deep sleep, and to factors such as the need to get up to urinate (nocturia), anxiety, and discomfort or pain associated with chronic illnesses. EFFECT OF CHANGES Sleeping difficulty is an annoying problem, but it is seldom dangerous. Because sleep is lighter and awakenings more frequent, older people may feel deprived of sleep even when total sleep time has not changed. Sleep deprivation can eventually cause confusion and other mental changes. It is treatable, and symptoms should lessen when adequate sleep is obtained. Sleep problems are also a common symptom of depression, so you should be evaluated and treated for depression if it might be causing the sleep problem. COMMON PROBLEMS Insomnia is one of the more common sleep problems for the elderly. Other sleep disorders, such as narcolepsy or hypersomnia, can also occur. Sleep apnea, where the breathing stops for a time during sleep, can cause severe problems. PREVENTION The elderly respond differently to medications than do younger adults, so it is very important to consult with a health care provider before taking medications for sleep. Avoid sleep medications if at all possible. Medications for depression, on the other hand, can be very helpful if depression contributes to the cause of the sleep problem. Most antidepressants do not produce the problems associated with sleeping medications. Sometimes a mild antihistamine is more effective than an actual sleeping pill for relieving short-term insomnia, but even nonprescription drugs can have side effects. Sleeping medications (such as benzodiazepines) should be used only as recommended, and only for a short time. Some can lead to dependence (needing to take the drug to function) or addiction (compulsive use despite adverse consequences) in some cases. Some build up in your body, and toxic effects can develop if you take them for a long time. Confusion, delirium, falls, and other side effects can develop. You can take measures to promote sleep: A light bedtime snack may be helpful. Many people find that warm milk increases sleepiness, because it contains a natural, sedative-like amino acid. Avoid stimulants such as caffeine (found in coffee, tea, cola drinks, and so on) for at least 3 or 4 hours before bed. Do not take naps during the day. Exercise (moderately) in the afternoon. Try to go to bed at the same time every night and wake at the same time each morning. Use the bed only for sleep or sexual activity. If you can't fall asleep after 20 minutes, get out of bed and do a quiet activity such as reading or listening to music. When you feel sleepy, get back in bed and try again. If not successful in 20 minutes, repeat. Drinking alcohol at bedtime may make you sleepy, but it is best to avoid it, because alcohol increases awakenings later in the night. RELATED TOPICS Aging changes in the nervous system Insomnia

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Medline ® Abstract for Reference 19 of 'Benzodiazepine poisoning ...

The assay methods used to determine the concentrations of the newer benzodiazepines include electron-capture gas-liquid chromatography, high performance ...

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Download XML - BioMed Central | The Open Access Publisher

B) Benzodiazepine assays. Marketed benzodiazepine screening immunoassays .... Figure 2B plots the cross-reactivities of marketed benzodiazepine assays ...

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Drug Assays - Methadone - Addiction - Recovery

u - urine assay s - serum assay. Drugs Containing the following compounds may test positive on EMIT(R) Benzodiazepine assays: ...

Adinazolam - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

"Urinary screening for adinazolam and its major metabolites by the Emit d.a.u. and FPIA benzodiazepine assays with confirmation by HPLC.". ...

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College of American Pathologists - Drug culture—ins and outs of ...

Barbiturates and benzodiazepines (BDZ) can be added to make a seven-drug panel, ... it can be fairly hard to detect on some standard benzodiazepine assays. ...

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Contents

Benzodiazepine Abuse
Benzodiazepines are generally safe if you take them exactly as your caregiver has told you to, and you do not use other medicines or substances at the same time. One or more of the following situations within a one-year period may mean that you are abusing a benzodiazepine:Does your use of this medicine stop you from doing your regular work, home, or school duties Do you miss work or school, or get there late Is your performance at these activities dropping or poor Do you neglect your home or children

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Romazicon
ROMAZICON acts as a benzodiazepine antagonist, blocks the effects of benzodiazepines in animals and man, antagonizes benzodiazepine reinforcement in animal models, produces dysphoria in normal subjects, and has had no reported abuse in foreign marketing.

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Midazolam
Midazolam HCl syrup is a benzodiazepine and is a Schedule IV controlled substance that can produce drug dependence of the diazepam-type. Therefore, midazolam HCl syrup may be subject to misuse, abuse and addiction. Benzodiazepines can cause physical dependence. Physical dependence results in withdrawal symptoms in patients who abruptly discontinue the drug. Withdrawal symptoms (ie, convulsions, hallucinations, tremors, abdominal and muscle cramps, vomiting and sweating), similar in characteristics...

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Ativan
Lorazepam is used to treat anxiety. This medicine is a benzodiazepine. Benzodiazepines belong to the group of medicines called central nervous system (CNS) depressants, which are medicines that slow down the nervous system.

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Restoril
Temazepam is used to treat insomnia (trouble in sleeping). This medicine is for short-term (usually 7 to 10 days) use only. Temazepam is a benzodiazepine. Benzodiazepines belong to the group of medicines called central nervous system (CNS) depressants, which are medicines that slow down the nervous system.

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Halcion
Triazolam is used to treat insomnia (trouble with sleeping). This medicine is only for short-term use, usually 7 to 10 days. Triazolam is a benzodiazepine. Benzodiazepines belong to the group of medicines called central nervous system (CNS) depressants, which are medicines that slow down the nervous system.

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Klonopin
Clonazepam is used alone or together with other medicines to treat certain seizure (convulsive) disorders (e.g., Lennox-Gastaut syndrome, akinetic or myoclonic seizures). It is also used to treat panic disorder in some patients. Clonazepam is a benzodiazepine. Benzodiazepines belong to the group of medicines called central nervous system (CNS) depressants, which are medicines that slow down the nervous system.

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Doral
Quazepam is used to treat insomnia (trouble in sleeping). This medicine is for short-term (usually 7 to 10 days) use only. Quazepam is a benzodiazepine. Benzodiazepines belong to the group of medicines called central nervous system (CNS) depressants, which are medicines that slow down the nervous system.

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Flumazenil
ROMAZICON is indicated for the complete or partial reversal of the sedative effects of benzodiazepines in cases where general anesthesia has been induced and/or maintained with benzodiazepines, where sedation has been produced with benzodiazepines for diagnostic and therapeutic procedures, and for the management of benzodiazepine overdose.

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Ambien CR
Zolpidem tartrate is classified as a Schedule IV controlled substance under the controlled Substances Act. Examples of other drugs placed in Schedule IV include benzodiazepines (diazepam, alprazolam, etc.) and the non-benzodiazepine hypnotics (zaleplon and eszopiclone).

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Clonazepam
Clonazepam is a benzodiazepine and is chemically designated as 5-(2-chlorophenyl)- 1,3-dihydro-7-nitro-2H-1,4-benzodiazepine-2-one. It is a light yellow crystalline powder. It has a molecular weight of 315.72 and the following structural formula. Seizure Disorders: Clonazepam tablets are useful alone or as an adjunct in the treatment of the Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (petit mal variant), akinetic and myoclonic seizures. In patients with absence seizures (petit mal) who have failed to respond to succinimides, clonazepam tablets may be useful.

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