What is cardiac surgery?

Open heart surgery is any surgery where the chest is opened and surgery is performed on the heart muscle, valves, arteries, or other heart structures. The term "open" refers to the chest, not the heart itself. The heart may or may not be opened, depending on the type of surgery. A heart-lung mahcine (also called cardiopulmonary bypass) is usually used during conventional open heart surgery. It helps provide oxygen-rich blood to the brain and other vital organs. The definition of open heart surgery has become confusing with new procedures being performed on the heart through smaller incisions. There are some new surgical procedures being performed that are done with the heart still beating. Minimally invasive heart surgery (MIDCAB, OPCAB, RACAB), including robotic-assisted heart surgery, is still considered open heart surgery. However, these procedures are being used in some patients as an alternative to open heart surgery requiring the heart-lung machine. See also: Aortic valve surgery - minimally invasive Aortic valve surgery - open Atrial septal defect repair Cardiac transplant Coarctation of the aorta repair Congenital heart defect corrective surgery Heart bypass surgery (coronary artery bypass graft - CABG) Heart transplant Heart valve surgery Hypoplastic left heart repair Minimally invasive heart surgery (MIDCAB, OPCAB, RACAB) Mitral valve surgery - minimally invasive Mitral valve surgery - open Pediatric heart surgery Tetralogy of Fallot repair Total anomalous pulmonary venous return correction Transplant of the heart Transposition of great vessels repair Tricuspid atresia repair Truncus arteriosus repair Ventricular septal defect (VSD) repair

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Cardiac surgery - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Cardiovascular surgery is a surgery on the heart and/or great vessels performed by cardiac surgeons. Frequently, it is done to treat complications of ...


Heart Surgery and Chest Surgery - NYU Department of Cardiothoracic ...

Nov 15, 2010 ... Division of Cardiac Surgery. Minimally invasive heart surgery with some of the highest success and lowest complications rates in the country ...


Cardiac Surgery Archive

Privacy: Your email address will be used by Medgadget editorial team only. We hate spam too. HONcode certification seal. Cardiac Surgery Archive ...


Cardiac Surgery, Treating Pediatric Heart Defects- Children's ...

At Children's Hospital Boston, we're fortunate to have cardiac surgery specialists with ... Our Cardiac Surgery Program is the largest in the United States. ...

Heart Surgery Options

Successful advances in technology allow cardiac surgery to be performed utilizing new innovative techniques on selected populations. ...


Minimally Invasive Heart Surgery

Minimally invasive heart surgery - Cleveland Clinic Heart & Vascular Institute, leader in heart care and heart disease in the United States.


Cardiothoracic Surgery | The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia

The Division of Cardiothoracic Surgery is a world leader in reconstructive surgery of hearts with complex disorders.


Cardiac Surgery at Mayo Clinic

Cardiac Surgery Learn more about cardiac surgery at Mayo Clinic.


Adhesions, General and After Surgery

An adhesion is a band of scar tissue that binds 2 parts of your tissue together. They should remain separate. Adhesions may appear as thin sheets of tissue similar to plastic wrap or as thick fibrous bands. The tissue develops when the body's repair mechanisms respond to any tissue disturbance, such as surgery, infection, trauma, or radiation. Although adhesions can occur anywhere, the most common locations are within the stomach, the pelvis, and the heart.

Cardiac Risk

This is a group of tests and health factors that have been proven to indicate your chance of having a cardiovascular event such as heart attack or stroke. They have been refined to indicate the degree of risk: slight, moderate, or high.



Heart Surgery
Each day, thousands of people in the U.S. have heart surgery. There are many different types of heart surgery. Surgeries may be used to

Pediatric heart surgery
Heart surgery in children is done to repair heart defects a child is born with (congenital heart defects) and heart diseases a child gets after birth that need surgery. The surgery is needed for the child's well-being.

Every year more than 15 million people in the U.S. have surgery. There are many reasons to have surgery. Some operations can relieve or prevent pain. Others can reduce a symptom of a problem or improve some body function. Some surgeries are done to find a problem. For example, a surgeon may do a biopsy, which involves removing a piece of tissue to examine under a microscope. Some surgeries, like heart surgery, can save your life. In recent years there have been many advances in surgery. Not long ago, all surgeries involved cutting with a scalpel. Today, some surgeries are done with lasers. Some operations that once needed large incisions - cuts in the body - can now be done using much smaller incisions.

Congenital heart defect corrective surgeries
Congenital heart defect corrective surgeries fix or treat heart defects that a child is born with. A baby born with heart defects has congenital heart disease. Surgery is needed if the defects are dangerous to the child's health or well-being.

Heart bypass surgery - minimally invasive
Heart bypass surgery creates a new route, called a bypass, for blood and oxygen to reach your heart. It helps fix problems caused by coronary artery disease (CAD), in which the arteries that lead to your heart are partly or totally blocked. Minimally invasive coronary (heart) artery bypass can be done without stopping the heart and putting a patient on a heart-lung machine. See also: Coronary bypass Angioplasty and stent placement

Heart bypass surgery
Heart bypass surgery creates a new route, called a bypass, for blood and oxygen to reach your heart. It is done to fix problems caused by coronary artery disease (CAD), in which the arteries that lead to your heart are partly or totally blocked. See also: Heart bypass surgery - minimally invasive Angioplasty and stent placement

Lumbar decompressive surgery
The surgeon will want to do an X-ray and an MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) scan to assess the state of your spine before surgery. You may also have an ECG (electrical recording of the heart) and blood tests.

Aortic valve surgery - minimally invasive
Blood flows out of your heart and into the aorta through a valve. This valve is called the aortic valve. It opens up so blood can flow out. It then closes, keeping blood from flowing backwards. Aortic valve surgery is done to either repair or replace the aortic valve in your heart. An aortic valve that does not close all the way allows blood to leak back into your heart. This is called aortic regurgitation. An aortic valve that does not open fully will restrict blood flow. This is called aortic stenosis. Minimally invasive aortic valve surgery is done through much smaller incisions (cuts) than the large cut needed for open aortic valve surgery.

Heart valve surgery
Heart valve surgery is used to repair or replace diseased heart valves.

Bypass Surgery
If you have coronary artery disease (CAD), the arteries that supply blood and oxygen to the heart muscle become hardened and narrowed. If lifestyle changes and medicines don't help, your doctor may recommend coronary artery bypass surgery. The surgery uses a piece of a vein from the leg or artery from the chest or wrist. The surgeon attaches this to the coronary artery above and below the narrowed area or blockage. This allows blood to bypass the blockage. Some people need more than one bypass.

Coronary bypass surgery
Coronary bypass surgery is a procedure to allow blood to flow to your heart muscle despite blocked arteries. Coronary bypass surgery uses a healthy blood vessel taken from your leg, arm, chest or abdomen and connects it to the other arteries in your heart so that blood is bypassed around the diseased or blocked area. After a coronary bypass surgery, normal blood flow is restored. Coronary bypass surgery is just one option to treat heart disease.