What is dna damage?

To detect cystic fibrosis (CF) genetic mutations to establish CF carrier status or to establish the diagnosis of CF in an individual, the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) and the American College of Medical Genetics (ACMG) recommend targeted gene screening when a couple is contemplating pregnancy or in early pregnancy

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Herpes is a common viral disease characterized by painful blisters of the mouth or genitals. The herpes simplex virus (HSV) causes painful blisters, usually affecting the mouth or genital area. The anal region, eyes, and fingers are involved in some people. Herpes is a lifelong disease with no cure, but most infected people have long periods without symptoms, interrupted by only occasional outbreaks. While it is a minor, annoying problem for most people, it can be a serious disease for newborns, pregnant women, and those with immune disorders.

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Chromosomes are long pieces of DNA found in the center (nucleus) of cells. DNA is the material that holds genes. It is considered the building block of the human body.

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DNA repair - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Jump to Types of damage‎: Low-level ionizing radiation may induce irreparable DNA damage (leading to replicational and transcriptional errors needed for ...

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DNA damage response as a candidate anti-cancer barrier in early ...

by J Bartkova - 2005 - Cited by 877 - Related articles

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Direct DNA damage - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Direct DNA damage can occur when DNA directly absorbs the UV-B-photon. UVB light causes thymine base pairs next to each other in genetic sequences to bond ...

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New Detection Technique Screens Cells for DNA Damage

May 7, 2010 ... A team of MIT and Harvard researchers has developed a new way to screen cells for signs of DNA damage. The hope is that this new technology ...

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Chronic leukaemia

Chronic leukaemia begins with an alteration to the structure of the DNA found in the stem cells that are responsible for producing white blood cells. The DNA provides the cells with a basic set of instructions, such as when to grow and reproduce. The alteration that occurs to the DNA's structure is known as a genetic mutation.

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Gammagard S + D

GAMMAGARD S/D, Immune Globulin Intravenous (Human) [IGIV] is a solvent/detergent treated, sterile, freeze-dried preparation of highly purified immunoglobulin G (IgG) derived from large pools of human plasma. The product is manufactured by the Cohn-Oncley cold ethanol fractionation process followed by ultrafiltration and ion exchange chromatography. Source material for fractionation may be obtained from another U.S. licensed manufacturer. The manufacturing process includes treatment with an organic solvent/detergent mixture,1,2 composed of tri-n-butyl phosphate, octoxynol 9 and polysorbate 80.3 The GAMMAGARD S/D manufacturing process provides a significant viral reduction in in vitro studies.3 These studies, summarized in Table 1, demonstrate virus clearance during GAMMAGARD S/D manufacturing using infectious human immunodeficiency virus, Types 1 and 2 (HIV-1, HIV-2), bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVD), a model virus for hepatitis C virus, sindbis virus (SIN), a model virus for lipid-enveloped viruses, pseudorabies virus (PRV), a model virus for lipid-enveloped DNA viruses such as herpes, vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), a model virus for lipid-enveloped RNA viruses, hepatitis A virus (HAV) and encephalomyocarditis virus (EMC), a model virus for non-lipid enveloped RNA viruses, and porcine parvovirus (PPV), a model virus for non-lipid enveloped DNA viruses.3 These reductions are achieved through a combination of process chemistry, partitioning and/or inactivation during cold ethanol fractionation and the solvent/detergent treatment.3 GAMMAGARD S/D is not indicated in patients with selective IgA deficiency where the IgA deficiency is the only abnormality of concern (see WARNINGS section).

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Campath (alemtuzumab) is a recombinant DNA-derived humanized monoclonal antibody (Campath-1H) directed against the 21-28 kD cell surface glycoprotein, CD52. Campath-1H is an IgG1 kappa antibody with human variable framework and constant regions, and complementarity-determining regions from a murine (rat) monoclonal antibody (Campath-1G). The Campath-1H antibody has an approximate molecular weight of 150 kD. Campath is produced in mammalian cell (Chinese hamster ovary) suspension culture in a medium containing neomycin. Neomycin is not detectable in the final product. Campath is a CD52-directed cytolytic antibody indicated as a single agent for the treatment of B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL) (1). 2 DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION 2.1 Dosing Schedule and Administration 2.2 Recommended Concomitant Medications 2.3 Dose Modification 2.4 Preparation and Administration 2.5 Incompatibilities 3 DOSAGE FORMS AND STRENGTHS 4 CONTRAINDICATIONS 5 WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS 5.1 Cytopenias 5.2 Infusion Reactions 5.3 Immunosuppression/Infections 5.4 Laboratory Monitoring 5.5 Immunization 6 ADVERSE REACTIONS 6.1 Clinical Trials Experience 6.2 Immunogenicity 6.3 Postmarketing Experience 7 DRUG INTERACTIONS 8 USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS 8.1 Pregnancy 8.3 Nursing Mothers 8.4 Pediatric Use 8.5 Geriatric Use 10 OVERDOSAGE 11 DESCRIPTION 12 CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY 12.1 Mechanism of Action 12.3 Pharmacokinetics 13 NONCLINICAL TOXICOLOGY 13.1 Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility 14 CLINICAL STUDIES 14.1 Previously Untreated B-CLL Patients 14.2 Previously Treated B-CLL Patients 15 REFERENCES 16 HOW SUPPLIED/STORAGE AND HANDLING 17 PATIENT COUNSELING INFORMATION FULL PRESCRIBING INFORMATION...

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Sexual Assault

Sexual Assault: What to Do If you have been sexually assaulted or think you have been, first, you must overcome the stigma of reporting the event. The stigma of reporting a sexual assault or rape for both women and men is not as great as it once was, and this change works in favor of the victim. The women's movement and the media have done a great deal to remove the stigma of being a victim of sexual assault. If sexual assault has taken place, you should report the crime for many important reasons, including the following: To keep the same person from assaulting others To provide psychological closure for you To be certain about your own health and have an examination to rule out medical problems related to the assault Sexual assault is an emotionally charged crime in which passions for prevention and prosecution run at a high level. Many people involved in sexual assault work have been victims of sexual assault themselves. These people take on the role of advocates and support persons for victims of sexual assault. Special sexual assault examination centers have been set up in most cities to work with victims of sexual assault in a sensitive manner. Report sexual assault to law enforcement as soon as possible. Although you may have many reasons for delay (such as fear, guilt, and confusion), any delay in reporting can and will be regarded as suspect and inevitably used to imply that you are making a false allegation. Tell family and friends immediately, and inform law enforcement at the same time. Family and friends can be helpful during the most difficult early moments after an assault. Use these steps in reporting sexual assault: When reporting sexual assault, document as many details as possible, as soon as possible. Accurate recall of events will fade quickly, and documentation in sufficient detail soon after an incident is thought of as more reliable evidence in the legal proceedings that will follow. Note the location and time of any events. Describe the number and characteristics of the assailant or assailants. Write down as much detail as possible about the circumstances surrounding the assault as soon as possible after the assault. Make an effort to recall each and every aspect of what occurred during the assault and turn over this information to law enforcement. Each of these details increases the chances that the suspect will be caught and successfully prosecuted: Each activity The sequence of activities How long each activity lasted What was said and by whom The number of times that resistance was offered The type of resistance Any unusual details Any associated physical assault Any pain Types of threats that were used Whether weapons were talked about, used, or seen during the assault Any bodily fluids seen or felt Any injuries that may have been inflicted on the assailant Maintain as much evidence as possible in its intact state. Do not wipe away or throw away any secretions that can be identified. Do not wash or change clothing, bedding, furniture, or any fabric. Put these items into dry paper bags and seal them. Resist the strong urge to clean up by washing, showering, and douching. You will be given a special sexual assault examination by trained health professionals at a hospital, and specimens that will be collected are very important in proving the guilt of the assailant. Many of these specimens contain DNA evidence that can provide conclusive proof of the identity of the assailant.


To diagnose and follow the course of an infection with hepatitis B or to determine if the vaccine against hepatitis B has produced the desired level of immunity

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Genital Human Papillomavirus
Most often, to screen for infections in women with the types of HPV that are associated with cervical cancer or to follow up on an abnormal Pap smear, sometimes to detect an HPV infection in men as there is a potential correlation between HPV infection and anal or penile cancer

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Herpes Simplex Virus, Type1 and Type 2
To screen for or diagnose infection with the herpes simplex virus

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Herpesvirus type 1 (herpes simplex or fever sores) Herpesvirus type 2 (genital herpes or venereal disease) Herpetovirus (varicella-zoster virus or shingles) This virus can cause encephalitis (an inflammation of the brain) or infect the cornea of the eye. Also a silent infection, or serious inflammation of the liver. Professional medical help should be found. Control of this virus should be under a doctors care to keep outbreaks from occurring.

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Gene therapy
Gene therapy involves altering the genes inside your body's cells to stop disease. Genes contain your DNA the code that controls much of your body's form and function. Your cells use the information from your genes to manufacture proteins that do the work in your body, from making you grow taller to regulating your body systems. Throughout your life, your genes turn on and off as needed to control cell activity.

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Stool DNA test
The stool DNA test is a new screening approach for the detection of colon cancer. One stool DNA test is currently available, but it has not been certified by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Next-generation stool DNA tests are being developed and still require full clinical validation. Screening for colon cancer using stool DNA testing has been endorsed by the American Cancer Society, the U.S. Multi-Society Task Force on Colorectal Cancer and the American College of Radiology, but not by the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force.

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Borrelia burgdorferi DNA detection by PCR
To see if you have been exposed to the bacterium that causes Lyme disease

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Chlamydia trachomatis by Direct Antigen Detection
To screen for or diagnose chlamydia infection

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Mycoplasma DNA testing
To detect an active or recent mycoplasma infection

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Trichomonas vaginalis DNA probe
To diagnose an infection with T. vaginalis, a microscopic, single cell (protozoan) parasite that is usually transmitted sexually, causing vaginal infections in women and urethritis and prostatitis in men

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GC test
To screen for or diagnose an infection with Neisseria gonorrhoeae, which causes the sexually transmitted disease gonorrhea

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