What is juvenile rheumatoid arthritis?

Doctors believe that juvenile rheumatoid arthritis is an autoimmune disorder. This means that the body's immune system attacks its own cells and tissues. It's unknown why this happens, but both heredity and environment seem to play a role. Certain gene mutations may make a person more susceptible to environmental factors such as viruses that may trigger the disease.

Read more on www.mayoclinic.com
Also known as jra, Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis, still's disease, Juvenile Chronic Arthritis, arthritis, juvenile rheumatoid, childhood arthritis, juvenile chronic polyarthritis, Juvenile Onset Still Disease, Juvenile-Onset Still Disease, Juvenile-Onset Still's Disease, Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritides, Juvenile Onset Still's Disease, Juvenile-Onset Stills Disease, Juvenile Onset Stills Disease
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Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis

Rheumatoid arthritis, often called RA, is a chronic (long-standing) disease that damages and eventually destroys the joints of the body. The damage is caused by inflammation, a normal response of the bodys immune system. Arthritis means joint inflammation. The inflammation in the joints causes pain, stiffness, and swelling as well as many other symptoms. The inflammation often affects other organs and systems of the body as well. If the inflammation is not slowed down or stopped, it eventually destroys the affected joints and other tissues. Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA), or juvenile arthritis, is not a single disease, but a group of diseases. What they all have in common is chronic joint inflammation. Besides this common feature, these diseases are very different in their symptoms, their treatments, and their outcomes. Pauciarticular disease affects only a few joints, fewer than 5. The large joints, such as the shoulder, elbow, hip, and knee, are most likely to be affected. This type of JRA is most common in children younger than 8 years. Children who develop this disease have a 20-30% chance of developing inflammatory eye problems and need frequent eye examinations. Children who develop this disease when older than 8 years have a higher-than-normal risk of developing an adult form of arthritis. About 50% of all children with JRA have this type. Polyarticular disease affects 5 joints or more, sometimes many more. The small joints such as those in the hands and feet are most likely to be affected. This type can begin at any age. In some cases, the disease is identical to adult-type RA. This type accounts for about 30% of cases of JRA. Systemic disease affects many systems of the body. Children may have high fevers, skin rashes, and problems caused by inflammation of the internal organs such as the heart, spleen, liver, and other parts of the digestive tract. It usually, but not always, begins in early childhood. Medical professionals sometimes call this Stills disease. This type accounts for about 20% of cases of JRA. Children with JRA may experience complications specific to their type of JRA. The most common complications in children with JRA relate to adverse effects of medications taken to treat the disease, particularly nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), such as ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin). When taken frequently, these drugs can cause irritation, pain, and bleeding in the stomach and upper intestine. They also can cause problems in the liver and kidneys that often have no symptoms until they are very severe. In some cases, the child must undergo frequent blood tests to screen for these problems. Some children with JRA have emotional or psychological problems. Bouts of depression and problems functioning in school are the most common. The death rate in children with JRA is somewhat higher than in healthy children. The highest death rate in children with JRA occurs among patients with systemic JRA who develop systemic symptoms (eg, pleural and pericardial disease). JRA can also evolve into other diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) or scleroderma, which have higher death rates than pauciarticular or polyarticular JRA. Treatment for JRA, like that for adult-type rheumatoid arthritis, has improved dramatically in the last 30 years, thanks mainly to the development of new medications.

Still's disease

Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA) is a type of arthritis that happens in children age 16 or younger. It causes joint swelling, stiffness and sometimes reduced motion. It can affect any joint, and in some cases it can affect internal organs as well. One early sign of JRA may be limping in the morning. Symptoms can come and go. Some children have just one or two flare-ups. Others have symptoms that never go away. JRA causes growth problems in some children.

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Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis

Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis, also known as juvenile idiopathic arthritis, is the most common type of arthritis in children under the age of 16.

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Juvenile Arthritis

Juvenile (JU-ve-nil) arthritis (arth-REYE-tis) , or JA, is a chronic (long-term) disease that begins before the age of 16. It is marked by inflammation (swelling and pain) of one or more joints for at least six weeks. Joints are parts of the body where bones meet. JA may affect any joint, including the joints of the hands, wrists, ankles, feet, and knees. JA is also called juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA), juvenile chronic arthritis (JCA), or juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA).

Read more on www.pdrhealth.com

Rheumatoid Arthritis

Currently, rheumatic fever cannot be prevented, but research is underway to develop a vaccine which may be successful in preventing the condition in the future. Prompt treatment of a streptococcal throat infection with antibiotics will also help minimise the risk of the infection developing into rheumatic fever.

Read more on www.nhs.uk

Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis

The most prevalent form of juvenile arthritis is juvenile rheumatoid arthritis, or JRA. It affects approximately 50000 children in the United States. ...

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Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis: eMedicine Pediatrics: General Medicine

Jun 1, 2010 ... Overview: Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA) is the most common rheumatological disease in children and is one of the most common chronic ...

Read more on emedicine.medscape.com

Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis - Arthritis Disease Center l Disease ...

Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA) is the most common forms of arthritis in children. It is also called juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) and juvenile ...

Read more on www.arthritis.org

Juvenile idiopathic arthritis - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

According to some sources, JIA replaces the term juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA). Other sources still use the latter term. ...

Read more on en.wikipedia.org

Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis (JRA) Symptoms, Signs, Diagnosis and ...

Mar 11, 2011 ... Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA) is the most common type of arthritis that ... Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis is also now called juvenile ...

Read more on www.medicinenet.com


Several serious complications can result from juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. But keeping a careful watch on your child's condition and seeking appropriate medical attention can greatly reduce the risk of these complications: Eye problems. Some forms of juvenile rheumatoid arthritis can cause eye inflammation. If this condition is left untreated, it may result in cataracts, glaucoma and even blindness. Eye inflammation frequently occurs without symptoms, so it's important for children with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis to be examined regularly by an ophthalmologist.; Growth interference. Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis can interfere with the development of your child's bones and growth. Some...

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Coping and support
Family members can play critical roles in helping a child cope with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. As a parent, you may want to try the following: Treat your child, as much as possible, like other children in your family.; Allow your child to express anger about having juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. Explain that the disease isn't caused by anything he or she did.; Encourage your child to participate in physical activities, keeping in mind the recommendations of your child's doctor and physical therapist.

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Exams and Tests
The physical examination may show swollen, warm, and tender joints that hurt to move. The child may have a rash. Other signs include: Enlarged liver ; Enlarged spleen ; Swollen lymph nodes ; Rheumatoid factor (may be raised, but not in all patients); Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR); ANA (may be high); Complete blood count (CBC); HLA antigens for HLA B27; X-ray of a joint; X-ray of the chest ; ECG ; Eye exam by an ophthalmologist (should be done on a regular basis, even if there are no eye...

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Lifestyle and home remedies
Caregivers can help children learn self-care techniques that help limit the effects of juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. Techniques include: Getting regular exercise. Exercise is important because it promotes both muscle strength and joint flexibility. Swimming is an excellent choice because it places minimal stress on joints.; Applying cold or heat. Stiffness affects many children with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis, particularly in the morning. Although some children respond well to cold packs, most children prefer a hot pack or a hot bath or shower.; Eating well. Some children with arthritis have poor appetites. Others may gain excess weight due to medications or physical inactivity. A balanced...

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Medical advice
Call for an appointment with your health care provider if:You notice symptoms of juvenile rheumatoid arthritis; Symptoms get worse or do not improve with treatment; New symptoms develop

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Outlook (Prognosis)
JRA is seldom life threatening.

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Possible Complications
Wearing away or destruction of joints (can occur in patients with more severe JRA) Slow rate of growth Uneven growth of an arm or leg Loss of vision or decreased vision from chronic uveitis (this problem may be severe, even when the arthritis is not very severe) Anemia Swelling around the heart (pericarditis) Chronic pain, poor school attendance

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Preparing for your appointment
If your pediatrician or family doctor suspects that your child has juvenile rheumatoid arthritis, he or she may refer you to a doctor who specializes in arthritis (rheumatologist) to confirm the diagnosis and for treatment.

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There is no known prevention for JRA.

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Risk factors
Risk factors for juvenile rheumatoid arthritis include: Sex. In general, juvenile rheumatoid arthritis is more common in girls.; Race. Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis appears to be more common in white children than in black or Asian children.

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The most common signs and symptoms of juvenile rheumatoid arthritis are: Pain. While your child might not complain of joint pain, you may notice that he or she limps especially first thing in the morning or after a nap.; Swelling. This sign is most often seen in the knees, but the small joints of the hands and feet also can be affected.; Stiffness. You might notice that your child appears more clumsy than usual.

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Tests and diagnosis
Diagnosis of juvenile rheumatoid arthritis can be difficult because joint pain can be caused by many different types of problems. No single test can confirm a diagnosis, but tests can help rule out some other conditions that produce similar signs and symptoms.

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Treatments and drugs
Treatment for juvenile rheumatoid arthritis focuses on helping your child maintain a normal level of physical and social activity. To accomplish this, doctors may use a combination of strategies to relieve pain and swelling, maintain full movement and strength, and prevent complications.

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