postoperativenauseaandvomiting

What is postoperative nausea and vomiting?


Nausea is an uneasy or unsettled feeling in the stomach together with an urge to vomit. Nausea and vomiting, or throwing up, are not diseases. They can be symptoms of many different conditions. These include morning sickness during pregnancy, infections, migraine headaches, motion sickness, food poisoning, cancer chemotherapy or other medicines. For vomiting in children and adults, avoid solid foods until vomiting has stopped for at least six hours. Then work back to a normal diet. Drink small amounts of clear liquids to avoid dehydration.

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Nausea and Vomiting

Nausea is that queasy feeling that often occurs right before you vomit. Vomiting involves forcefully ejecting stomach contents through the mouth. Both are experiences that almost everyone goes through at one time or another.

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Vomiting and Nausea

Vomiting and nausea are not illnesses but common complaints that go along with many diseases and conditions. The problems with nausea and vomiting are related to the cause. Nausea and vomiting from motion sickness or seasickness or cancer therapy can result in loss of water and electrolytes, which can lead to dehydration. Vomiting and nausea known as morning sickness may occur during pregnancy. Nausea, the unmistakable, unpleasant, queasy feeling in your throat or stomach that may result in vomiting, is a message sent by your brain. It tells you that something isn't right. Vomiting means emptying your stomach by a strong gag and retch that leads to throwing up. The stomach's contents are forcefully expelled through the mouth. Vomiting can come in waves as the natural movement (known as peristalses) is reversed, and involuntary contractions in the walls of your stomach and esophagus force the stomach contents out. Sometimes coughing or spitting up mucus from the lungs is confused with vomiting. You can only vomit from the stomach. Retching is the movement of the stomach and esophagus without vomiting. Sometimes this is called the dry heaves. Most people experiencing the dry heaves would rather just throw up and "get it over with."

KETEROLAC TROMETHAMINE

Ketorolac tromethamine ophthalmic solution, 0.5% is a member of the pyrrolo-pyrrole group of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) for ophthalmic use. Its chemical name is (&plusmn,)-5-benzoyl-2,3-dihydro-1H-pyrrolizine-1-carboxylic acid compound with 2-amino-2-(hydroxymethyl)-1,3-propanediol (1:1) and has the following structure:Ketorolac tromethamine ophthalmic solution, 0.5% is supplied as a sterile isotonic aqueous 0.5% solution, with a pH of 7.4. Ketorolac tromethamine ophthalmic solution, 0.5% is a racemic mixture of R-( + )- and S-(-)- ketorolac tromethamine. Ketorolac tromethamine may exist in three crystal forms. All forms are equally soluble in water. The pKa of ketorolac is 3.5. This white to off-white crystalline substance discolors on prolonged exposure to light. The molecular weight of ketorolac tromethamine is 376.41. The osmolality of ketorolac tromethamine ophthalmic solution, 0.5% is 290 mOsmol/kg. Ketorolac tromethamine ophthalmic solution, 0.5%, is indicated for the temporary relief of ocular itching due to seasonal allergic conjunctivitis. Ketorolac tromethamine ophthalmic solution, 0.5% is also indicated for the treatment of postoperative inflammation in patients who have undergone cataract extraction.

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ALBURX

Birke G, Liljedahl SO, Plantin LO, Reizenstein P. Acta Chir. Scand. 1968,134:27. Cervera AL, Moss G. J. Trauma. 1974,14:506. Clowes GH Jr, Vucinic M, Weidner MG. Ann. Surg. 1966,163:866. Gaar KA Jr, Taylor AE, Owens LJ, Guyton AC. Amer. J. Physiol. 1967,213:79. Heughan C, Niinikoski J, Hunt TK. Surg. Gynec. Obstet. 1972,135:257. Hoye RC, Paulson DF, Ketcham AS. Surg. Gynec. Obstet. 1970,131:943. Kinney JM, Egdahl RH, Zuidema GD. Manual of Preoperative and Postoperative Care, American College...

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Guideline for the management of postoperative nausea and ...

Women at risk for or who suffer from postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) ... Reduction in baseline risk factors for postoperative nausea and vomiting ...

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Contents

Nausea and Vomiting
Nausea is the sensation of having an urge to vomit. Vomiting is forcing the contents of the stomach up through the esophagus and out of the mouth.

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Nausea and vomiting in pregnancy
CKS Guidelines (2008) Nausea and sickness in pregnancy

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Cyclic vomiting syndrome
Cyclic vomiting syndrome causes bouts of severe nausea and vomiting that can last for days. The disorder, which has no known cause, may affect as many as one in 50 children. Once thought to affect primarily girls, cyclic vomiting syndrome is now believed to affect boys and girls equally.

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Dipyridamole
Dipyridamole, USP is a platelet inhibitor chemically described as 2,2',2'',2'''-[(4,8-Dipiperidinopyrimido[5,4-d]pyrimidine-2,6-diyl)dinitrilo]-tetraethanol. It has the following structural formula:Dipyridamole is an odorless yellow crystalline powder, having a bitter taste. It is soluble in dilute acids, methanol and chloroform, and practically insoluble in water. Dipyridamole Tablets, USP are indicated as an adjunct to coumarin anticoagulants in the prevention of postoperative thromboembolic complications of cardiac valve replacement.

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OXOJECT
OXOJect (Oxytocin injection) is a sterile aqueous solution of highly purified oxytocic principle derived by synthesis or obtained from the posterior lobe of the putuitary gland of healthy domestic animals used for food by humans. OXOJect (Oxytocin injection) contains 20 USP Units of oxytocin and less than 0.4 units of presser activity per mL. Each mL of sterile solution also contains 0.9% w/v sodium chloride, 0.5% w/v chlorobutanol (as a preservative), with water for injection q.s. and pH adjusted to 3.0 to 5.0 with acetic acid. Because of the specific action of oxytocin upon the uterine musculature, it is recommended as an aid in the management of the following conditions: 1) To precipitate labor 2) To accelerate normal parturition 3) Postpartum evacuation of uterine debris 4) Postoperative contraction of the uterus following a cesarean section and control of uterine hemorrhage. Oxytocin will contract the smooth muscle cells of the mammary gland to induce milk let-down if the udder is in a proper physiological state.

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Acular
ACULAR (ketorolac tromethamine ophthalmic solution) is a member of the pyrrolo-pyrrole group of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) for ophthalmic use. Its chemical name is (&plusmn,)-5-benzoyl-2, 3-dihydro-1H pyrrolizine-1-carboxylic acid, compound with 2-amino-2-(hydroxymethyl)-1,3-propanediol (1:1) and it has the following structure:ACULAR ophthalmic solution is supplied as a sterile isotonic aqueous 0.5% solution, with a pH of 7.4. ACULAR ophthalmic solution is a racemic mixture of R-(+) and S-(-)- ketorolac tromethamine. Ketorolac tromethamine may exist in three crystal forms. All forms are equally soluble in water. The pKa of ketorolac is 3.5. This white to off-white crystalline substance discolors on prolonged exposure to light. The molecular weight of ketorolac tromethamine is 376. 41. The osmolality of ACULAR ophthalmic solution is 290 mOsml/kg. ACULAR ophthalmic solution is indicated for the temporary relief of ocular itching due to seasonal allergic conjunctivitis. ACULAR ophthalmic solution is also indicated for the treatment of postoperative inflammation in patients who have undergone cataract extraction.

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Postoperative nausea and vomiting - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) is an unpleasant complication affecting about a third of the 10% of the population undergoing general anaesthesia ...

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Consensus guidelines for managing postoperative nausea and vomiting.
by TJ Gan - 2003 - Cited by 512 - Related articles

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Late Onset Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting - Full Text View ...
Jun 10, 2009 ... Official Title: Late Onset Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting Following Strabismus Surgery in Pediatric.What Combination is Better ...

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