postoperative nausea and vomiting information from trusted sources:
Nausea and Vomiting
Nausea is that queasy feeling that often occurs right before you vomit. Vomiting involves forcefully ejecting stomach contents through the mouth. Both are experiences that almost everyone goes through at one time or another.
Vomiting and Nausea
Vomiting and nausea are not illnesses but common complaints that go along with many diseases and conditions. The problems with nausea and vomiting are related to the cause. Nausea and vomiting from motion sickness or seasickness or cancer therapy can result in loss of water and electrolytes, which can lead to dehydration. Vomiting and nausea known as morning sickness may occur during pregnancy. Nausea, the unmistakable, unpleasant, queasy feeling in your throat or stomach that may result in vomiting, is a message sent by your brain. It tells you that something isn't right. Vomiting means emptying your stomach by a strong gag and retch that leads to throwing up. The stomach's contents are forcefully expelled through the mouth. Vomiting can come in waves as the natural movement (known as peristalses) is reversed, and involuntary contractions in the walls of your stomach and esophagus force the stomach contents out. Sometimes coughing or spitting up mucus from the lungs is confused with vomiting. You can only vomit from the stomach. Retching is the movement of the stomach and esophagus without vomiting. Sometimes this is called the dry heaves. Most people experiencing the dry heaves would rather just throw up and "get it over with."
Ketorolac tromethamine ophthalmic solution, 0.5% is a member of the pyrrolo-pyrrole group of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) for ophthalmic use. Its chemical name is (&plusmn,)-5-benzoyl-2,3-dihydro-1H-pyrrolizine-1-carboxylic acid compound with 2-amino-2-(hydroxymethyl)-1,3-propanediol (1:1) and has the following structure:Ketorolac tromethamine ophthalmic solution, 0.5% is supplied as a sterile isotonic aqueous 0.5% solution, with a pH of 7.4. Ketorolac tromethamine ophthalmic solution, 0.5% is a racemic mixture of R-( + )- and S-(-)- ketorolac tromethamine. Ketorolac tromethamine may exist in three crystal forms. All forms are equally soluble in water. The pKa of ketorolac is 3.5. This white to off-white crystalline substance discolors on prolonged exposure to light. The molecular weight of ketorolac tromethamine is 376.41. The osmolality of ketorolac tromethamine ophthalmic solution, 0.5% is 290 mOsmol/kg. Ketorolac tromethamine ophthalmic solution, 0.5%, is indicated for the temporary relief of ocular itching due to seasonal allergic conjunctivitis. Ketorolac tromethamine ophthalmic solution, 0.5% is also indicated for the treatment of postoperative inflammation in patients who have undergone cataract extraction.
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Guideline for the management of postoperative nausea and ...
Women at risk for or who suffer from postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) ... Reduction in baseline risk factors for postoperative nausea and vomiting ...