What is tumor necrosis?

Necrosis is death of body tissue. It occurs when there is not enough blood flowing to the tissue, whether from injury, radiation, or chemicals. Necrosis is not reversible. When substantial areas of tissue die due to a lack of blood supply, the condition is called gangrene.

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Tumor Markers

What are they Tumor markers are substances, usually proteins, that are produced by the body in response to cancer growth or by the cancer tissue itself and that may be detected in blood, urine, or tissue samples. Some tumor markers are specific for a particular type of cancer, while others are seen in several cancer types. Most of the well-known markers may also be elevated in non-cancerous conditions. Consequently, tumor markers alone are not diagnostic for cancer. There are only a handful of well-established tumor markers that are routinely used by physicians. Many other potential markers are still being researched. Some markers cause great excitement when they are first discovered but, upon further investigation, prove to be no more useful than markers already in use. The goal is to be able to screen for and diagnose cancer early, when it is the most treatable and before it has had a chance to grow and spread. So far, the only tumor marker to gain wide acceptance as a screening test is Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) for prostate cancer in men. Even with PSA there is continued debate among experts and national organizations over the usefulness of this test for screening asymptomatic men. Other markers are either not specific enough (too many false positives, leading to expensive and unnecessary follow-up testing) or they are not elevated early enough in the disease process to be useful for screening. Some people are at a higher risk for particular cancers because they have inherited a genetic mutation. While not considered tumor makers, there are tests that look for these mutations in order to estimate the risk of developing a particular type of cancer. BRCA1 and BRCA2 are examples of gene mutations related to an inherited risk of breast cancer and ovarian cancer. For more information, see our overview on genetic testing.

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Tumor necrosis factor definition - Medical Dictionary definitions ...

Mar 20, 2011 ... Tumor necrosis factor: A member of a superfamily of proteins, each with 157 amino acids, which induce necrosis (death) of tumor cells and ...

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BioMed Central | Full text | Tumor necrosis is associated with ...

by IM Bachmann - 2008 - Cited by 6 - Related articles

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Tumor Necrosis Factor - What is Tumor Necrosis Factor?

Nov 18, 2006 ... Tumor necrosis factor is a cytokine which is involved in the inflammatory process.

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Safety Alerts for Human Medical Products > Tumor Necrosis Factor ...

Aug 4, 2009 ... UPDATE 08/31/2009 - Supplemental Q&As added to 08/04/2009 safety information (increased risk of lymphoma and other malignancies in children ...

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Tuberculosis Associated with Blocking Agents Against Tumor ...

Aug 5, 2004 ... Tuberculosis associated with infliximab, a tumor necrosis factor-alpha ... Tumor necrosis factor-a inhibitors and the reactivation of latent ...

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Tumor Necrosis Factor Inhibitors May Decrease MI Risk in Psoriasis

by F Lowry

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Tumor necrosis factor (Tnf)

Mouse protein-coding gene Tnf. Represented by 99 ESTs from 17 cDNA libraries. Corresponds to reference sequence NM_013693.2. [UniGene 256267 - Mm.1293]

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Blocking Tumor Necrosis Factor in Ankylosing Spondylitis - Full ...

Jan 18, 2000 ... It blocks the action of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), a substance that may be involved in AS, rheumatoid arthritis, ...

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A tumor is an abnormal growth of body tissue. Tumors can be cancerous (malignant) or non-cancerous (benign).

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Cancer begins in your cells, which are the building blocks of your body. Normally, your body forms new cells as you need them, replacing old cells that die. Sometimes this process goes wrong. New cells grow even when you don't need them, and old cells don't die when they should. These extra cells can form a mass called a tumor. Tumors can be benign or malignant. Benign tumors aren't cancer while malignant ones are. Cells from malignant tumors can invade nearby tissues. They can also break away and spread to other parts of the body. Most cancers are named for where they start. For example, lung cancer starts in the lung, and breast cancer starts in the breast. The spread of cancer from one part of the body to another is called metastasis. Symptoms and treatment depend on the cancer type and how advanced it is. Treatment plans may include surgery, radiation and/or chemotherapy.

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In treating cancer, the aim is to remove the cancerous cells while making sure that the cancer does not reoccur. This can be challenging because even if only one cancerous cell remains after treatment, it has the potential to cause a new tumour.

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The term "malignancy" refers to cancerous cells that usually have the ability to spread, invade, and destroy tissue. Malignant cells tend to have fast, uncontrolled growth due to changes in their genetic makeup. Malignant cells that are resistant to treatment may return after all detectable traces of them have been removed or destroyed.

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Acute tubular necrosis
Acute tubular necrosis is a kidney disorder involving damage to the tubule cells of the kidneys, resulting in acute kidney failure.

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Renal papillary necrosis
Renal papillary necrosis is a disorder of the kidneys in which all or part renal papillae die. The renal papillae is the area where the openings of the collecting ducts enter the kidney.

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Avascular necrosis
Avascular necrosis is death of bone tissue due to a lack of blood supply. This can lead to tiny breaks in the bone and the bone's eventual collapse. Avascular necrosis most often affects the head of the thighbone (femur), causing hip pain. But it may affect other bones as well.

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Tumors, Benign
Tumors are abnormal growths in your body. They are made up of extra cells. Normally, old cells die, and new ones take their place. Sometimes, however, this process goes wrong. New cells form even when you don't need them, and old cells don't die when they should. When these extra cells form a mass, it is called a tumor. Tumors can be either benign or malignant. Benign tumors aren't cancer. Malignant ones are. Benign tumors grow only in one place. They cannot spread or invade other parts of your body. Even so, they can be dangerous if they press on vital organs, such your brain.

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AFP Tumor Markers
To help diagnose and monitor therapy for certain cancers of the liver, testes, or ovaries

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Bone tumors
Benign bone tumors may not require treatment, but may be looked at regularly to check if they grow or shrink. Surgical removal of the tumor may be necessary. Treatment for malignant tumors that have spread to the bone depends on the primary tissue or organ involved. Radiation therapy with chemotherapy or hormone therapy is often used. Tumors that start in the bone (primary malignant tumors of the bone) are rare and require treatment at centers with experience treating these cancers. After biopsy,...

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Tumor necrosis factor - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Tumor necrosis factor can refer to: Tumor necrosis factors, a class of cytokines. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha, the most frequently-mentioned member of this ...

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