What is Type 1 diabetes?

The exact cause of type 1 diabetes is unknown. Scientists do know that in most people with type 1 diabetes, their body's own immune system which normally fights harmful bacteria and viruses mistakenly destroys the insulin-producing (islet) cells in the pancreas. Genetics may play a role in this process, and exposure to certain viruses may trigger the disease.

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Also known as juvenile diabetes, diabetes type 1, diabetes, type 1, diabetes - type 1, type i diabetes, insulin-dependent diabetes, IDDM, insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus, diabetes mellitus type 1, juvenile onset diabetes, Type I diabetes mellitus, diabetes mellitus type i, Juvenile-Onset Diabetes Mellitus, Brittle Diabetes Mellitus, Ketosis-Prone Diabetes Mellitus, Sudden-Onset Diabetes Mellitus, DIABETES MELLITUS TYPE 01
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Type 1 diabetes information from trusted sources:

Type 1 diabetes

Type 1 diabetes is a chronic (lifelong) disease that occurs when the pancreas does not produce enough insulin to properly control blood sugar levels. See also: Diabetes Gestational diabetes Type 2 diabetes

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Type 1 diabetes

Type 1 diabetes, once known as juvenile diabetes or insulin-dependent diabetes, is a chronic condition in which the pancreas produces little or no insulin, a hormone needed to allow sugar (glucose) to enter cells to produce energy. Type 2 diabetes, which is far more common, occurs when the body becomes resistant to the effects of insulin or doesn't make enough insulin.

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Diabetes, Type 1

Diabetes is a long-term (chronic) condition caused by too much glucose (sugar) in the blood. It is also known as diabetes mellitus.

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Diabetes - type 1

Type 1 diabetes is a disorder characterized by high levels of sugar (glucose) in the blood. Diabetes consists of two forms: type 1, previously called "juvenile-onset" diabetes, and type 2, previously called "adult-onset" diabetes. Type 1 diabetes usually starts suddenly before age 30, and usually in children before age 13, but may occur at any age. Type 2 diabetes, conversely, tends to affect adults above the age of 30, but also may affect children and young adults. Type 1 diabetes accounts for 10% of cases of diabetes. It requires daily insulin injections because the body loses its ability to manufacture any insulin, the hormone that regulates blood sugar. Type 2 diabetes, on the other hand, is caused by a combination of insulin resistance and an inability of the cells of the pancreas to produce enough insulin.

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Diabetes-related Autoantibodies

To help diagnose autoimmune type 1 diabetes, to help predict the development of type 1 diabetes in family members of those affected (for research purposes only)

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Type 1 - American Diabetes Association

Usually diagnosed in children and young adults, type 1 was previously known as juvenile diabetes.

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Diabetes mellitus type 1 - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Diabetes mellitus type 1 (Type 1 diabetes, IDDM, or, obsoletely, juvenile diabetes) is a form of diabetes mellitus that results from autoimmune destruction ...

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What is Type 1 Diabetes? - Diabetes Mellitus : Juvenile Diabetes ...

Diabetes (medically known as diabetes mellitus) is the name given to disorders in which the body has trouble regulating its blood glucose, or blood sugar, ...

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Type 1 Diabetes: symptoms, diagnosis, and insulin treatments ...

Mar 29, 2009 ... Type 1 diabetes is much less common than type 2 diabetes and typically affects younger individuals. Type 1 diabetes usually begins before ...

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Type 1 Diabetes: What Is It?

Every year in the United States, 13000 children are diagnosed with type 1 diabetes. With some practical knowledge, you can become your child's most ...

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Type 1 diabetes can affect many major organs in your body, including your heart, blood vessels, nerves, eyes and kidneys. Keeping your blood sugar level close to normal most of the time can dramatically reduce the risk of many complications.

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Coping and support
Living with type 1 diabetes isn't easy. Good diabetes management requires a lot of time and effort, especially in the beginning.

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Exams and Tests
Diabetes is diagnosed with the following blood tests: Fasting blood glucose level -- diabetes is diagnosed if it is higher than 126 mg/dL on two occasions; Random (nonfasting) blood glucose level -- diabetes is suspected if it is higher than 200 mg/dL, and the patient has symptoms such as increased thirst, urination, and fatigue (this must be confirmed with a fasting test); Oral glucose tolerance test -- diabetes is diagnosed if the glucose level is higher than 200 mg/dL after 2 hours.; When...

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Lifestyle and home remedies
Type 1 diabetes is a serious disease. Following your diabetes treatment plan takes round-the-clock commitment, which can be frustrating at times. But realize that your efforts are worthwhile. Careful management of type 1 diabetes can reduce your risk of serious even life-threatening complications. Consider these tips: Make a commitment to managing your diabetes. Learn all you can about type 1 diabetes. Make healthy eating and physical activity part of your daily routine. Establish a relationship with a diabetes educator, and ask your diabetes treatment team for help when you need it.; Identify yourself. Wear a tag or bracelet that says you have diabetes. Keep a glucagon kit nearby in case...

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Medical advice
If you are newly diagnosed with type 1 diabetes, you should probably have medical follow-up weekly until you have good control of blood glucose. Your health care provider will review the results of home glucose monitoring and urine testing. The provider will also look at your diary of meals, snacks, and insulin injections.

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Outlook (Prognosis)
Diabetes is a lifelong disease for which there is not yet a cure. However, the outcome for people with diabetes varies. Studies show that tight control of blood glucose can prevent or delay complications to the eyes, kidneys, nervous system, and heart in type 1 diabetes. However, complications may occur even in those with good diabetes control.

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Possible Complications
After many years, diabetes can lead to serious problems with your eyes, kidneys, nerves, heart, blood vessels, and other areas in your body.

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Preparing for your appointment
After you've been diagnosed with type 1 diabetes, you'll need close medical follow-up until your blood sugar level stabilizes and your doctor determines the proper dose of insulin. Diabetes care is generally coordinated by a doctor who specializes in hormonal disorders (endocrinologist), but your health care team will also likely include a certified diabetes educator, a nutritionist, a social worker, a doctor who specializes in eye care (ophthalmologist) and a doctor who specializes in foot health (podiatrist).

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There's nothing you could have done to prevent type 1 diabetes; there is currently no known way to prevent the disease.

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Risk factors
There aren't many known risk factors for type 1 diabetes, though researchers continue to find new possibilities. Some known risk factors include: A family history. Anyone with a parent or sibling with type 1 diabetes has a slightly increased risk of developing the condition.; Genetics. The presence of certain genes indicates an increased risk of developing type 1 diabetes. In some cases usually through a clinical trial genetic testing can be done to determine if someone who has a family history of type 1 diabetes is at increased risk of developing the condition.; Geography. The incidence of type 1 diabetes tends to increase as you travel away from the equator. People living in Finland and...

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Support Groups
For additional information and resources, see diabetes support group.

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Type 1 diabetes signs and symptoms can come on quickly and may include: Increased thirst and frequent urination. As excess sugar builds up in your bloodstream, fluid is pulled from your tissues. This may leave you thirsty. As a result, you may drink and urinate more than usual.; Extreme hunger. Without enough insulin to move sugar into your cells, your muscles and organs become depleted of energy. This triggers intense hunger that may persist even after you eat. Without insulin, the sugar in your food never reaches your energy-starved tissues.; Weight loss. Despite eating more than usual to relieve hunger, you may lose weight sometimes rapidly. Without the energy sugar supplies, your muscle...

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Tests and diagnosis
In June 2009, an international committee composed of experts from the American Diabetes Association, the European Association for the Study of Diabetes and the International Diabetes Federation recommended that type 1 diabetes testing include the: Glycated hemoglobin (A1C) test. This blood test indicates your average blood sugar level for the past two to three months. It works by measuring the percentage of blood sugar attached to hemoglobin, the oxygen-carrying protein in red blood cells. The higher your blood sugar levels, the more hemoglobin you'll have with sugar attached. An A1C level of 6.5 percent or higher on two separate tests indicates you have diabetes. A result between 6 and...

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Treatments and drugs
Treatment for type 1 diabetes is a lifelong commitment to: Taking insulin; Exercising regularly and maintaining a healthy weight; Eating healthy foods; Monitoring blood sugar

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